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Subject: RE: UKNM: Re: Bluetooth
From: Irakli West
Date: Tue, 29 Aug 2000 18:04:12 +0100

Being Danish, I've got some affinity with Harald Bluetooth, a 10th-century
Viking king :)

Actually, Bluetooth operates as a radio signal rather than infra-red (which
needs to be in line-of-sight) meaning that devices don't have to face each
other. The allocated frequency range is somewhere above 2.4GHz (on the side,
there is an issue in France where this frequency band is used by the
military). Also, Bluetooth devices can be up to 10m apart, and up to 100m
with relay stations. See more info below, something I've put together from
various sources mostly from www.bluetooth.com

Using a carrier will depend on the product and type of payment. If the
currency is in the handset (eg dual-slot mobiles, or a GeldKarte) then the
transaction will be local although I can imagine the vending machine sending
a 'report' via carrier to a central database. If the payment is direct debit
(using Trust/ Certificates), credit card or telephone/ utility bill, then
obviously the transfer of funds would happen over the carrier. The trend for
mobile payments is also towards aopplications on central servers - a cost
issue as 'dumb' cards on the handsets are much cheaper to implement than
sophisticated and error-prone systems (JavaCard, Multos, Windows Card)

It is conceivable the interface between machine and mobile will be in wml
(over WAP?) - in which case it would be a WAP application?

User adoption is another matter. For example, virtually all German EC bank
cards have a GeldKarte chip installed, but only 30% are even aware of this
feature. There are quite a few machines accepting this kind of payment

Hope this helps

Irakli West
Mobile Digital Services
Syzygy Ltd.
Tel: +44 (0)20 7598 9930
GSM:+44 (0)7801 097 944
Mail: i [dot] westatsyzygy [dot] net
SMS Mail: irakliwestatsms [dot] genie [dot] co [dot] uk

+++++++++Bluetooth primer+++++++++++

Bluetooth wireless technology works by using a radio transceiver which
basically acts as a short-range walkie-talkie. This radio allows the device
to send short range radio signals which look for other Bluetooth devices.
When another device is found, the devices begin to communicate with each
other and can exchange information.

What is it - a technology, a standard, an initiative, or a product?
Bluetooth wireless technology is a de facto standard, as well as a
specification for small-form factor, low-cost, short range radio links
between mobile PCs, mobile phones and other portable devices. The Bluetooth
Special Interest Group is an industry group consisting of leaders in the
telecommunications, computing, and networking industries that are driving
development of the technology and bringing it to market.

What will Bluetooth wireless technology deliver to end users?
It will enable users to connect a wide range of computing and
telecommunications devices easily and simply, without the need to buy,
carry, or connect cables. It delivers opportunities for rapid ad hoc
connections, and the possibility of automatic, unconscious, connections
between devices. It will virtually eliminate the need to purchase additional
or proprietary cabling to connect individual devices. Because Bluetooth
wireless technology can be used for a variety of purposes, it will also
potentially replace multiple cable connections via a single radio link. It
creates the possibility of using mobile data in a different way, for
different applications such as "Surfing on the sofa", "The instant
postcard", "Three in one phone" and many others. It will allow them to think
about what they are working on, rather than how to make their technology

When will Bluetooth specifications be released?
Early revisions of the specification has been released to members of the
Bluetooth SIG. Version 1.0 was published Q2 1999. Version 2.0 will be
released in year 2000 or 2001

The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG),
comprised of leaders in the telecommunications, computing, and network
industries, is driving development of the technology and bringing it to
market. The Bluetooth SIG includes promoter companies 3Com, Ericsson, IBM,
Intel, Lucent, Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia and Toshiba, and thousands of
adopter companies. Http://www.bluetooth.com
How is Bluetooth wireless technology different from IrDA (Infrared Data
While neither IrDA nor Bluetooth require the use of cables to achieve
interdevice communication, IrDA requires that the devices be within line of
sight in order to achieve communication. Since Bluetooth is based on radio
transmissions, Bluetooth devices do not have to be within line of sight.
Interdevice communication using Bluetooth may be achieved at much greater
distances than IrDA even if there are obstructions between devices.
Basically, as long as the radio transceiver microchips can hear each other,
Bluetooth wireless communication is possible. Further, the specifications
for communicating using IrDA are not as defined as the Bluetooth
specifications so unique drivers are needed to communicate using IrDA where
that is not the case with Bluetooth.

What's a piconet? Bluetooth Jargonbuster
Piconet: A network of devices connected using Bluetooth wireless technology.
A piconet may consist of two to eight devices. In a piconet, there will
always be one master while the others are slaves.

Master Unit: This is the device within a piconet whose clock and
frequency-hopping sequence is used to synchronize all slave units within the

Slave units: Any unit within a piconet that is not the master unit.

Scatternet: Two or more independent, non-synchronized piconets.

Mac address: A 3-bit address used to distinguish units within a piconet. 3
bits allows for only 8 unique address, thus the limit on the number of
devices allowed to participate in a piconet.
Parked units: Those devices within a piconet which are synchronized but do
not have a MAC address.

Sniff and hold mode: This mode describes the ability of synchronized devices
within a piconet to enter power-saving mode which lowers device activity.


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  UKNM: International debt collection, Severina Publications

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